Playing his first Test for West Indies at the age of 28, Mayers became only the sixth cricketer to hit a double hundred in his premiere innings.
His unbeaten 210, with 20 fours and seven sixes, was crucial in the three-wicket win after West Indies reached 395-7 with just nine balls left on Sunday’s final day.
Mayers said he was still a cricket “student” learning the tricks.
Selected because eight established stars refused to join the tour over coronavirus fears, Mayers said he would “take the positives” from his starring role.
“I will try to learn as much from this innings and take it to the next game where I start from zero,” he said.
“I don’t want to be a one-hit wonder. I want to be successful and consistent for the duration of my career.”
Mayers was one of three players getting a first chance because of the big name absentees.
Fellow debutant Nkrumah Bonner made 86 and the pair added 216 for the fourth wicket.
The Barbados-born Mayers said he had been given hope by an “inspirational” letter sent by former captain Clive Lloyd to the makeshift team.
“He just let us know that representing West Indies is a lot. He said don’t go to Bangladesh thinking you are a second string team,” he said.
“Give your all, put up a fight, and make sure you represent yourself and family. It was a very strong letter.”
West Indies fast bowler Shannon Gabriel took three wickets at the start of Bangladesh’s second innings to leave the hosts reduced to 33-3 at one stage.
They recovered to declare at 223-8, but the West Indies players had confidence they could reach the huge target.
“To be honest, the spirit in the dressing room was always positive from the day we came out to bowl in the second innings after Shannon Gabriel gave us that inspirational spell,” said Mayers.
“After we got back inside the dressing room after taking a couple of wickets in the evening, the coach and captain said that the game is wide open and up for grabs.
“We always had the belief that we could do well,” he added.
The second and final Test starts in Dhaka on February 11.