Vitori, a 28-year-old left-arm fast bowler, was reported by the match officials following his side’s match against Nepal on Sunday.
An ICC panel then studied video of his action in Tuesday’s match against Afghanistan which Zimbabwe won by two runs with Vitori taking their last wicket.
He must now undergo an assessment of his bowling action at an ICC-approved testing centre.
Vitori has been suspended before over his action, in January 2016, but was allowed to resume international cricket in June of that year after assessors passed his action as legal.
But in December 2016 he was banned again, this time for 12 months, and was only reinstated in January this year.
Zimbabwe will replace Vitori with Richard Ngarava, a left-arm fast bowler and lower-order batsman for the 2019 World Cup qualifying tournament in Zimbabwe next month.