Morning rain over the Himalayan hill town forced a delay of the toss, and returned in the afternoon leaving umpires with no choice but to call the game off.
It is the second successive international to have been washed out at Dharamsala after a Twenty20 match between the same opponents was abandoned without a ball being bowled in September.
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This three-match series has gone ahead despite the coronavirus outbreak that has prompted the cancellation of top sporting events across the globe.
But the next two matches in Lucknow on Sunday and Kolkata on March 18 could be played behind closed doors after the Indian government advised sports bodies to hold events in empty stadiums because of the pandemic.
The Board of Control for Cricket in India made no immediate announcement of its plans for the games.