The former Paris-Saint Germain player was injured during Sunday’s 7-0 thrashing of Sassuolo, leaving the field after just 26 minutes.
He underwent tests that found a “slight” strain.
“More tests are needed to better evaluate for how long he will be out,” Juve said in a statement.
The injury could not have come at a worse time with the Italian champions due to face Tottenham in their Champions League last 16 first leg next Tuesday.
Matuidi was replaced by Italy international Claudio Marchisio at the weekend.